Classification of Subjects

The Acoustical Society of Korea > Classification of Subjects

Classification of Subjects

The Classification listed here is the Appendix to Section 43, Acoustics, of the Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS), of the American Institute of Physics. The PACS scheme is used to index The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as well as material on acoustics in other physics journals. An online version of PACS is available on AIPs World Wide Web server. The uniform resource locator (URL) for this document is
http://www.aip.org/pacs/index.html

43. Acoustics
  • 43.05.-k Acoustical Society of America
  • 43.05.Hw Meetings
  • 43.05.Ky Members and membership lists, personal notes, fellows
  • 43.05.Ma Administrative committee activities
  • 43.05.Nb Technical committee activities; Technical Council
  • 43.05.Pc Prizes, medals, and other awards
43.10. -a General
  • 43.10.Ce Conferences, lectures, and announcements (not of the Acoustical Society of Korea)
  • 43.10.Gi Editorials, Forum
  • 43.10.Hj Books and book reviews
  • 43.10.Sv Education in acoustics, tutorial papers of interest to acoustics educators
  • 43.10.VxErrata
43.15. +s Standards
  • 43.20.-f General linear acoustics
  • 43.20.Bi Mathematical theory of wave propagation
  • 43.20.El Reflection, refraction, diffraction of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Fn Scattering of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Gp Reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and scattering of elastic and poroelastic waves
  • 43.20.Hq Velocity and attenuation of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Ks Standing waves, resonance, normal modes
  • 43.20.Mv Waveguides, wave propagation in tubes and ducts
  • 43.20.Px Transient radiation and scattering
  • 43.20.Rz Steady-state radiation from sources, impedance, radiation patterns, boundary element methods
  • 43.20.Tb Interaction of vibrating structures with surrounding medium
  • 43.20.Wd Analogies
  • 43.20.Ye Measurement methods and instrumentation
43.25. -x Nonlinear acoustics
  • 43.25.BaParameters of nonlinearity of the medium
  • 43.25.CbMacrosonic propagation, finite amplitude sound; shock waves
  • 43.25.DcNonlinear acoustics of solids
  • 43.25.EdEffect of nonlinearity on velocity and attenuation
  • 43.25.Fe Effect of nonlinearity on acoustic surface waves
  • 43.25.Gf Standing waves; resonance
  • 43.25.Jh Reflection, refraction, interference, scattering, and diffraction of intense sound waves
  • 43.25.Lj Parametric arrays, interaction of sound with sound, virtual sources
  • 43.25.Nm Acoustic streaming
  • 43.20.Rz Steady-state radiation from sources, impedance, radiation patterns, boundary element methods
  • 43.25.Qp Radiation pressure
  • 43.25.Ts Nonlinear acoustical and dynamical systems
  • 43.25.Vt Intense sound sources
  • 43.25.Yw Nonlinear acoustics of bubbly liquids
  • 43.25.Zx Measurement methods and instrumentation for nonlinear acoustics
43.28. -g Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
  • 43.28.Dm Infrasound and acoustic-gravity waves
  • 43.28.En Interaction of sound with ground surfaces, ground cover and topography, acoustic impedance of outdoor surfaces
  • 43.28.Fp Outdoor sound propagation through a stationary atmosphere, meteorological factors
  • 43.28.Hr Outdoor sound sources
  • 43.28.Js Numerical models for outdoor propagation
  • 43.28.Lv Statistical characteristics of sound fields and propagation parameters
  • 43.28.Mw Shock and blast waves, sonic boom
  • 43.28.Py Interaction of fluid motion and sound, Doppler effect, and sound in flow ducts
  • 43.28.Ra Generation of sound by fluid flow, aerodynamic sound and turbulence
  • 43.28.Vd Measurement methods and instrumentation to determine or evaluate atmospheric parameters, winds, turbulence, temperatures, and pollutants in air
  • 43.28.We Measurement methods and instrumentation for remote sensing and for inverse problems
43.28. -g Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
  • 43.28.Dm Infrasound and acoustic-gravity waves
  • 43.28.En Interaction of sound with ground surfaces, ground cover and topography, acoustic impedance of outdoor surfaces
  • 43.28.Fp Outdoor sound propagation through a stationary atmosphere, meteorological factors
  • 43.28.Hr Outdoor sound sources
  • 43.28.Js Numerical models for outdoor propagation
  • 43.28.Lv Statistical characteristics of sound fields and propagation parameters
  • 43.28.Mw Shock and blast waves, sonic boom
  • 43.28.Py Interaction of fluid motion and sound, Doppler effect, and sound in flow ducts
  • 43.28.Ra Generation of sound by fluid flow, aerodynamic sound and turbulence
  • 43.28.Vd Measurement methods and instrumentation to determine or evaluate atmospheric parameters, winds, turbulence, temperatures, and pollutants in air
  • 43.28.We Measurement methods and instrumentation for remote sensing and for inverse problems
43.30. -k Underwater sound
  • 43.30.Bp Normal mode propagation of sound in water
  • 43.30.Cq Ray propagation of sound in water
  • 43.30.Dr Hybrid and asymptotic propagation theories, related experiments
  • 43.30.Es Velocity, attenuation, refraction, and diffraction in water, Doppler effect
  • 43.30.Ft Volume scattering
  • 43.30.Gv Backscattering, echoes, and reverberation in water due to combinations of boundaries
  • 43.30.Hw Rough interface scattering
  • 43.30.Jx Radiation from objects vibrating under water, acoustic and mechanical impedance
  • 43.30.Ky Structures and materials for absorbing sound in water; propagation in fluid-filled permeable material
  • 43.30.Lz Underwater applications of nonlinear acoustics; explosions
  • 43.30.Ma Acoustics of sediments; ice covers, viscoelastic media; seismic underwater acoustics
  • 43.30.Nb Noise in water; generation mechanisms and characteristics of the field
  • 43.30.Pc Ocean parameter estimation by acoustical methods; remote sensing; imaging, inversion, acoustic tomography
  • 43.30.Qd Global scale acoustics; ocean basin thermometry, transbasin acoustics
  • 43.30.Re Signal coherence or fluctuation due to sound propagation/scattering in the ocean
  • 43.30.Sf Acoustical detection of marine life; passive and active
  • 43.30.Tg Navigational instruments using underwater sound
  • 43.30.Vh Active sonar systems
  • 43.30.Wi Passive sonar systems and algorithms, matched field processing in underwater acoustics
  • 43.30.Xm Underwater measurement and calibration instrumentation and procedures
  • 43.30.Yj Transducers and transducer arrays for underwater sound; transducer calibration
  • 43.30.Zk Experimental modeling
43.35. -c Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
  • 43.35.Bf Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in liquids, liquid crystals, suspensions, and emulsions
  • 43.35.Cg Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in solids; elastic constants
  • 43.35.Ei Acoustic cavitation in liquids
  • 43.35.Mr Acoustics of viscoelastic materials
  • 43.35.Ns Acoustical properties of thin films
  • 43.35.Pt Surface waves in solids and liquids
  • 43.35.Sx Acoustooptical effects, optoacoustics, acoustical visualization, acoustical microscopy, and acoustical holography
  • 43.35.Ty Other physical effects of sound
  • 43.35.Ud Thermoacoustics, high temperature acoustics, photoacoustic effect
  • 43.35.Wa Biological effects of ultrasound, ultrasonic tomography
  • 43.35.Yb Ultrasonic instrumentation and measurement techniques
  • 43.35.Zc Use of ultrasonics in nondestructive testing, industrial processes, and industrial products
43.38. -p Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
  • 43.38.Ar Transducing principles, materials, and structures: general
  • 43.38.Bs Electrostatic transducers
  • 43.38.Ct Magnetostrictive transducers
  • 43.38.Dv Electromagnetic and electrodynamic transducers
  • 43.38.Fx Piezoelectric and ferroelectric transducers
  • 43.38.Gy Semiconductor transducers
  • 43.38.Hz Transducer arrays, acoustic interaction effects in arrays
  • 43.38.Ja Loudspeakers and horns, practical sound sources
  • 43.38.Kb Microphones and their calibration
  • 43.38.Lc Amplifiers, attenuators, and audio controls
  • 43.38.Md Sound recording and reproducing systems, general concepts
  • 43.38.Ne Mechanical, optical, and photographic recording and reproducing systems
  • 43.38.Pf Hydroacoustic and hydraulic transducers
  • 43.38.Si Telephones, earphones, sound power telephones, and intercommunication systems
  • 43.38.Tj Public address systems, soundreinforcement systems
  • 43.38.Vk Stereophonic reproduction
  • 43.38.Yn Impulse transducers
43.40. -r Structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.40.At Experimental and theoretical studies of vibrating systems
  • 43.40.Cw Vibrations of strings, rods, and beams
  • 43.40.Dx Vibrations of membranes and plates
  • 43.40.Ey Vibrations of shells
  • 43.40.Fz Acoustic scattering by elastic structures
  • 43.40.Ga Nonlinear vibration
  • 43.40.Hb Random vibration
  • 43.40.Jc Shock and shock reduction and absorption
  • 43.40.Kd Impact and impact reduction, mechanical transients
  • 43.40.Le Techniques for nondestructive evaluation and monitoring, acoustic emission
  • 43.40.Ng Effects of vibration and shock on biological systems, including man
  • 43.40.Ph Seismology and geophysical prospecting; seismographs
  • 43.40.Qi Effect of sound on structures fatigue; spatial statistics of structural vibration
  • 43.40.Rj Radiation from vibrating structures into fluid media
  • 43.40.Sk Inverse problems in structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.40.Tm Vibration isolators, attenuators, and dampers
  • 43.40.Vn Active vibration control
  • 43.40.Yq Instrumentation and techniques for tests and measurement relating to shock and vibration, including vibration pickups, indicators, and generators, mechanical impedance
43.50. -x Noise: its effects and control
  • 43.50.Ba Noisiness: rating methods and criteria
  • 43.50.Ed Noise generation
  • 43.50.Fe Noise masking systems
  • 43.50.Gf Noise control at source: redesign, application of absorptive materials and reactive elements, mufflers, noise silencers, noise barriers, and attenuators, etc.
  • 43.50.Hg Noise control at the ear
  • 43.50.Jh Noise in buildings and general machinery noise
  • 43.50.Ki Active noise control
  • 43.50.Lj Transportation noise sources: air, road, rail, and marine vehicles
  • 43.50.Nm Aerodynamic and jet noise
  • 43.50.Pn Impulse noise and noise due to impact
  • 43.50.Qp Effects of noise on man and society
  • 43.50.Rq Environmental noise, measurement, analysis, statistical characteristics
  • 43.50.Sr Community noise, noise zoning, by-laws, and legislation
  • 43.50.Yw Instrumentation and techniques for noise measurement and analysis
43.55. -n Architectural acoustics
  • 43.55.Br Room acoustics: theory and experiment; reverberation, normal modes, diffusion, transient and steady-state response
  • 43.55.Dt Sound absorption in enclosures:theory and measurement; use of absorption in offices, commercial and domestic spaces
  • 43.55.Ev Sound absorption properties of materials: theory and measurement of sound absorption coefficients; acoustic impedance and admittance
  • 43.55.Fw Auditorium and enclosure design
  • 43.55.Gx Studies of existing auditoria and enclosures
  • 43.55.Hy Subjective effects in room acoustics, speech in rooms
  • 43.55.Jz Sound-reinforcement systems for rooms and enclosures
  • 43.55.Ka Computer simulation of acoustics in enclosures, modeling
  • 43.55.Mc Room acoustics measuring instruments, computer measurement of room properties
  • 43.55.Nd Reverberation room design:theory, applications to measurements of sound absorption, transmission loss, sound power
  • 43.55.Rg Sound transmission through walls and through ducts: theory and measurement
  • 43.55.Ti Sound-isolating structures, values of transmission coefficients
  • 43.55.Vj Vibration-isolating supports in building acoustics
  • 43.55.Wk Damping of panels
43.58. -e Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
  • 43.58.Bh Acoustic impedance measurement
  • 43.58.Dj Sound velocity
  • 43.58.Fm Sound level meters, level recorders, sound pressure, particle velocity, and sound intensity measurements, meters, and controllers
  • 43.58.Gn Acoustic impulse analyzers and measurements
  • 43.58.Hp Tuning forks, frequency standards; frequency measuring and recording instruments; time standards and chronographs
  • 43.58.Ry Distortion: frequency, nonlinear, phase, and transient; measurement of distortion
  • 43.58.Ta Computers and computer programs in acoustics
  • 43.58.Vb Calibration of acoustical devices and systems
43.60. -c Acoustic signal processing
  • 43.60.Ac Theory of acoustic signal processing
  • 43.60.Bf Acoustic signal detection and classification, applications to control systems
  • 43.60.Cg Statistical properties of signals and noise
  • 43.60.Dh Signal processing for communications: telephony and telemetry, sound pickup and reproduction, multimedia
  • 43.60.Ek Acoustic signal coding, morphology, and transformation
  • 43.60.Fg Acoustic array systems and processing, beam- forming
  • 43.60.Gk Space-time signal processing, other than matched field processing
  • 43.60.Hj Time-frequency signal processing, wavelets
  • 43.60.Jn Source localization and parameter estimation
  • 43.60.Kx Matched field processing
  • 43.60.Lq Acoustic imaging, displays, pattern recognition, feature extraction
  • 43.60.Mn Adaptive processing
  • 43.60.Pt Signal processing techniques for acoustic inverse problems
  • 43.60.Qv Signal processing instrumentation, integrated systems, smart transducers, devices and architectures, displays and interfaces for acoustic systems
  • 43.60.Rw Remote sensing methods, acoustic tomography
  • 43.60.Sx Acoustic holography
  • 43.60.Tj Wave front reconstruction, acoustic time-reversal, and phase conjugation
  • 43.60.Uv Model-based signal processing
  • 43.60.Vx Acoustic sensing and acquisition
  • 43.60.Wy Non-stationary signal analysis, non-linear systems, and higher order statistics
43.64. -q Physiological acoustics
  • 43.64.Bt Models and theories of the auditory system
  • 43.64.Ha Acoustical properties of the outer ear; middle-ear mechanics and reflex
  • 43.64.Jb Otoacoustic emissions
  • 43.64.Kc Cochlear mechanics
  • 43.64.Ld Physiology of hair cells
  • 43.64.Me Effects of electrical stimulation, cochlear implant
  • 43.64.Pg Electrophysiology of the auditory nerve
  • 43.64.Qh Electrophysiology of the auditory central nervous system
  • 43.64.Ri Evoked responses to sounds
  • 43.64.Sj Neural responses to speech
  • 43.64.Tk Physiology of sound generation and detection by animals
  • 43.64.Vm Physiology of the somatosensory system
  • 43.64.Wn Effects of noise and trauma on the auditory system
  • 43.64.Yp Instruments and methods
43.66. -x Psychological acoustics
  • 43.66.Ba Models and theories of auditory processes
  • 43.66.Cb Loudness, absolute threshold
  • 43.66.Dc Masking
  • 43.66.Ed Auditory fatigue, temporary threshold shift
  • 43.66.Fe Discrimination: intensity and frequency
  • 43.66.Gf Detection and discrimination of sound by animals
  • 43.66.Hg Pitch
  • 43.66.Jh Timbre, timbre in musical acoustics
  • 43.66.Lj Perceptual effects of sound
  • 43.66.Mk Temporal and sequential aspects of hearing; auditory grouping in relation to music
  • 43.66.Nm Phase effects
  • 43.66.Pn Binaural hearing
  • 43.66.Qp Localization of sound sources
  • 43.66.Rq Dichotic listening
  • 43.66.Sr Deafness, audiometry, aging effects
  • 43.66.Ts Auditory prostheses, hearing aids
  • 43.66.Vt Hearing protection
  • 43.66.Wv Vibration and tactile senses
  • 43.66.Yw Instruments and methods related to hearing and its measurement
43.70. -h Speech production
  • 43.70.Aj Anatomy and physiology of the vocal tract, speech aerodynamics, auditory kinetics
  • 43.70.Bk Models and theories of speech production
  • 43.70.Dn Disordered speech
  • 43.70.Ep Development of speech production
  • 43.70.Fq Acoustical correlates of phonetic segments and suprasegmental properties: stress, timing, and intonation
  • 43.70.Gr Larynx anatomy and function; voice production characteristics
  • 43.70.Jt Instrumentation and methodology for speech production research
  • 43.70.Kv Cross-linguistic speech production and acoustics
  • 43.70.Mn Relations between speech production and perception
43.71.-k Speech perception
  • 43.71.An Models and theories of speech perception
  • 43.71.Bp Perception of voice and talker characteristics
  • 43.71.Es Vowel and consonant perception; perception of words, sentences, and fluent speech
  • 43.71.Ft Development of speech perception
  • 43.71.Gv Measures of speech perception (intelligibility and quality)
  • 43.71.Hw Cross-language perception of speech
  • 43.71.Ky Speech perception by the hearing impaired
  • 43.71.Lz Speech perception by the aging
  • 43.71.Qr Neurophysiology of speech perception
  • 43.71.Rt Sensory mechanisms in speech perception
  • 43.71.Sy Spoken language processing by humans
43.72. -p Speech processing and communication systems
  • 43.72.Ar Speech analysis and analysis techniques; parametric representation of speech
  • 43.72.Bs Neural networks for speech recognition
  • 43.72.Dv Speech-noise interaction
  • 43.72.Fx Talker identification and adaptation algorithms
  • 43.72.Gy Narrow, medium, and wideband speech coding
  • 43.72.Ja Speech synthesis and synthesis techniques
  • 43.72.Kb Speech communication systems and dialogue systems
  • 43.72.Ne Automatic speech recognition systems
  • 43.72.Uv Forensic acoustics
43.75. -z Music and musical instruments
  • 43.75.Bc Scales, intonation, vibrato, composition
  • 43.75.Cd Music perception and cognition
  • 43.75.De Bowed stringed instruments
  • 43.75.Ef Woodwinds
  • 43.75.Fg Brass instruments and other lipvibrated instruments
  • 43.75.Gh Plucked string instruments
  • 43.75.Hi Drums
  • 43.75.Kk Bells, gongs, cymbals, mallet percussion, and similar instruments
  • 43.75.Lm Free reed instruments
  • 43.75.Mn Pianos and other struck string instruments
  • 43.75.Np Pipe organs
  • 43.75.Qr Flutes and similar wind instruments
  • 43.75.Rs Singing
  • 43.75.St Musical performance, training, and analysis
  • 43.75.Tv Electro-acoustic and electronic instruments
  • 43.75.Wx Electronic and computer music
  • 43.75.Yy Instrumentation and measurement methods for musical acoustics
  • 43.75.Zz Analysis, synthesis, and processing of musical sounds
43.80. -n Bioacoustics
  • 43.80.Cs Acoustical characteristics of biological media: molecular species, cellular level tissues
  • 43.80.Ev Acoustical measurement methods in biological systems and media
  • 43.80.Gx Mechanisms of action of acoustic energy on biological systems: physical processes, sites of action
  • 43.80.Jz Use of acoustic energy (with or without other forms) in studies of structure and function of biological systems
  • 43.80.Ka Sound production by animals: mechanisms, characteristics, populations, biosonar
  • 43.80.Lb Sound reception by animals: anatomy, physiology, auditory capacities, processing
  • 43.80.Nd Effects of noise on animals and associated behavior, protective mechanisms
  • 43.80.Pe Agroacoustics
  • 43.80.Qf Medical diagnosis with acoustics
  • 43.80.Sh Medical use of ultrasonics for tissue modification (permanent and temporary)
  • 43.80.Vj Acoustical medical instrumentation and measurement techniques